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Neutrinos are more prevalent than is generally believed. Nuclear reactions are not the only source of neutrinos. Neutrinos are produced in every beam of light. A neutino is an array of bits of electrical charge. The bits are arrayed in clusters of four, two positive and two negative. The clusters are separated from other clusters in the same neutrino by distances in the range of 2 x 10-5 cm. Let each cluster be represented by 1. A diagram of a neutrino would look like: 11111111111...etc. A real neutrino is about 10-8 cm wide, and 30 centimeters long.

A photon is just like a neutrino, except that each cluster in a photon has only one bit of negative charge and one bit of positive charge. Therefore, each cluster in a photon has an electrical field. If a certain cluster, also known as a neg-pos pair, has its field from right to left, the adjacent cluster has its field from left to right.

When two photons travel side by side, on nearly parallel paths, and are exactly out of step, or in opposite phase, and converging, they come together at a point in space. When the two photons meet, they remain together in the form of a neutrino. The neutino continues on the same path, at the same speed. The difference is that the separate photons could have been detected, whereas the neutrino cannot be detected. There is an experiment that leads to this conclusion. The following is an account of that experiment.

A box made of black cardboard is 6 cm x 6 cm x 100 cm . A window at one end lets light enter. A window at the other end permits observation. A 6 cn x 6 cm square of black construction paper is placed across the path of the light at the 50 cm mark. Sunlight enters one window. An eye at the other window detects no light. A photographic film, in place of the eye for 40 hours, when developed, proves that no light reaches the second window. This is strange, because, in any sunbeam, there must be at least two photons of the same frequency and opposite phase colliding at some point. The black construction paper reflects or absorbs all of the uncombined photons. That leaves all of the photons that coincide out of phase to pass through the screen. They can't be absorbed or reflected by matter as long as their fields are neutralized. These photons should pass through the screen and be observed, when they later separate from each other. Since they are not observed, the logical conclusion is that the photons remain combined , and exist as undetectable neutrinos.

If it were to be assumed that a sunbeam does not have enough matching pairs of photons, then the next logical step would be to pass the light through a diffraction grating. A diffraction grating has a series of parallel black lines on a transparent sheet . The spacing is microscopic. There are 6000 lines per cm. Let two photons on parallel paths arrive at adjacent slits in the grating exactly in phase. If they pass through the grating, and continue straight ahead, they can be detected, because they remain in phase. If the photons pass through the grating, and then take another path, they may meet out of phase, because the lengths of their paths are not equal. The diffraction grating is placed in the window, where the light enters, and the opaque screen is in place at the 50 cm mark. The screen stops all photons that arrive separately. Some photons of the same frequency and opposite phase must be meeting at the screen, and passing through. Observation detects no photons, even when photographic film is exposed for 40 hours.

The grating is then turned to an angle of 10 degrees, and the sunlight is shifted by mirrors so that it will still arrive normally at the plane of the grating. The result is the same.

The grating is then turned to an angle of 20 degrees, and the sunlight is shifted accordingly. There is still no light reaching the observer through the opaque screen. This shows that the photons that get through the opaque screen, remain combined as neutrinos, and cannot be detected.

This experiment was designed to support neg-pos theory. The interpretation of results is contrived to favor neg-pos theory. Nevertheless, this experiment and its interpretation constitute a firmer basis for the neg-pos theory than the foundation for quantum theory in its experiments and interpretations.

According to quantum theory, no photons travel at those angles that lead to the dark areas on a screen that receives sunlight through a diffraction grating. The angles of the paths of the photons are determined by the probability, as found by solving the quantum equation. To a person who looks for cause-effect relationships, quantum theory is very unsatisfying. Surely the photons do not move in response to mathematical calculations. neither do photons know enough to stay out of forbidden areas.

Neg-pos theory furnishes a mechanism, and opens up a new field of investigation, the relationship between neutrinos and photons.

An interesting field of study that is very lively at the present time is that of the laser and its many applications. The way a laser works is that a group of atoms of the same element, situated in molecules of the same kind, have electrons agitated by signals from an outside source. The trick is to get the electrons to emit photons in phase with each other.

When a laser beam reaches its target, its photons may be absorbed by electrons in the target, individually. In other words, it does not matter, at that point, whether there is matched phase.

Another thing: when the photons were being emitted at the laser, they fell into step because an electron was stimulated to emit a photon when another photon was passing by. The leading edge of the stimulator photon had to pass the stimulated electron before the leading edge of the stimulated photon could emerge. Although the laser beam consists of phases that are in step, the photons' leading edges did not have to match.

The question arises, why should laser photons have phases in step? If two photons traveling side by side have opposite phase, the negative bits of one would attract the positive bits of the other, and the two photons will combine to form a neutrino, thereby losing two photons from the laser beam. The very existence of the laser beam depends on the phases being in step.

In quantum theory, photons have two characters, wave and particle. As particles, photons leave the emitting electrons as points. As waves, photons have frequency and wavelength. Experience indicates that a photon has a length of 30 centimeters, and takes a billionth of a second to assemble.

In a laser, photons are supposed to travel side by side. If photons are waves, and must agree in phase, the leading cycle of one photon cannot be side by side with the leading cycle of another photon. In effect, the laser beam is a continuous wave. The photons do not have to be emitted simultaneously. They need only agree in phase and frequency.

One of the recent developments is the pulsating of laser beams. If pulses occur closer together than the time it takes for a photon to pass a point, the photon is cut.

In order to increase the speed of computers, the succession of pulses has been speeded up. Each batch of photons gets fragmented. The fragments of a photon have the same frequency as the intact photon, but they have less energy. That doesn't matter, because the laser beam contains large aggregates of neg-pos pairs.

A fragment of a photon is not different from a fragment of continuous wave of the same frequency. This demonstrates that radio signal and light are composed of the same kind of matter. It also shows that photons have length. Instead of being particles or waves, photons are formal collections of tiny particles.

A photon of standard length is completely absorbed by an electron whose frequency of oscillation matches the frequency of the photon. When an electron of that particular frequency receives a continuous wave of that frequency, it absorbs only the quantity that fits the length of a photon. The excess neg-pos pairs that keep arriving are re-emitted before they can accumulate, because the frequency of oscillation of an overexcited electron has an altered frequency.

If the electron receives a fragment of continuous wave that is shorter than a photon, it stores the neg-pos until more arrives to increase the energy.

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