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New Theories

The attraction between bodies of matter is the same for all bodies, because all bodies are composed of the same fundamental particle. Even the electron is an aggregate of bits that are so tiny that it takes 4.917 x 1011 bits to make one electron. It gets rather cosy when that number of bits fit in a sphere that is 5.29 x 10-9 centimeters in radius.

How do we get these figures? One frequent product of radioactivity is a gamma ray photon. It can encounter an atom, thereupon breaking apart and becoming an electron plus a positron. Half of the bits in the photon are negative and half are positive. The negative half become the core of the electron. We can find the number of bits in a gamma ray photon by observing the wavelength and calculating how many wavelengths fit into the length of one photon. That gives us the frequency, which is the number of cycles per photon. Each cycle is a group of four bits. A photon is not a wave. It is a procession of bits. The bits are paired, each pair being one negative and one positive. In the procession, the pairs alternate. A pair with neg on the left is followed by a pair with neg on the right.

While like bits are close enough, they attract each other. When the distance increases, like bits repel each other. The repulsion is strong at the point where attraction changes to repulsion. Thereafter, as the distance increases, the strength of repulsion decreases. Unlike bits attract each other.

We might ask,"What is distance?". Distance is a relationship between particles. When there is motion, the force changes. When the force has changed, the distance has changed. When the distance changes, there is motion. Motion implies the time rate change of distance.

Why do we have a whole vocabulary for the simple fact that there are two bits? A bit is not a bit unless it has the characteristics of a bit. A bit pushes or pulls another bit. A bit can approach another bit or move apart from another bit. If we call that motion over distance in time, it does not alter the fact that there is nothing but bits. The rest is in our minds. Whatever happens to bits is caused by bits. There is no limit to what can result from the intersection of multitudes of bits.

The distance between a planet and the earth is determined by the behavior of the planets and other bodies of matter that may be involved. It is not caused by space and time. The cause is the sum of the behaviors of the zillions of bits that make up the solar system.

The effect of the change in distance between bits is instantanious regardless of the length of that distance. There is no messenger. The effect is called gravitation. The strength of gravitation is called the force of gravitation. Nevertheless, that which we call gravitation is the net attraction between bits. That attraction is the difference beween the attractive force and the repulsive force. The attractive force is slightly stronger than the repulsive force.

When two bodies of matter contain as many negative bits as positive bits, there is a net attraction between the bodies, called gravitation. Basically, it is the attraction of unlikes minus the repulsion of likes.

A common observation of gravity is a falling body. When one pair of bits, one negative and one positive, is free to fall in a vacuum, it keeps gaining motion during the entire fall. Nothing has to be added during the fall. The process is driven by the attraction between one pair and all of the zillions of pairs that are in the earth. The distance that is taken into account is the distance between the center of the earth and the surface of the earth, because that is the average distance per pair of the earth's matter between them and the surface of the earth.

Should we take a book off the floor and put it on a shelf, we push the book against the force of gravity, and we must transfer bits from ourselves to the book in numbers proportional to the force and the distance. If we allow the book to fall from the shelf to the floor, it retains all of its bits until it hits the floor, having gained speed all the while. But when the book hits the floor, it transfers its motion to individual molecules in the floor. In doing so, the book passes all of the pairs that were added on the way up, to the molecules in the floor.

It is interesting to note that the force from a single pair of bits in the interior of the earth passes unhindered through the earth, and then continues through outer space. The sum of the forces of all of the bits in the earth compose the earth's gravity. This is possible because nothing exists that is not made of bits. The force of bits is strictly the characteristic of bits, and not something that can be intercepted. For example the table does not shield the book that sits on it.

ZERO POINT ENERGY

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It seems that scientists have encountered bits and neg-pos pairs without calling them by that name. When a sample of helium is chilled down to the zero of temperature, it still does not solidify. This gives an impression of energy without heat. When there is heat, helium nuclei are in motion. When there is no heat, the only sign of movement is jittering of electrons.

The cause of the jittering is the absorption of neg-pos pairs. All atoms emit neg-pos and absorb neg-pos. These pairs move at the speed of light in a vacuum, relative to the source. They can pass easily through matter, and they can travel for centuries without changing in any way.

Since pairs go in all directioons, they do not push one way more than another. Therefore they do not affect matter, and are not detected, except when they are in the form of photons, and they have a frequency that matches the oscillation of an electron.

Physicists don't know what to make of this. They do offer a few theories, but they have not hit upon neg-pos theory. Read what they propose in the following site: The Vacuum, Light Speed, and the Red Shift

There is a report from the physics department of Purdue University of work done with the use of a particle accelerator in Japan. The result is a picture of the structure of an electron, in which there are negative and positive building blocks, very much like those in my neg-pos theory. This information can be reached via GOOGLE through Koltick electron structure.

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MAGNETISM

Loadstone and magnetism have been known for thousands of years, but the connection between electric current and magnetism was found in the first half of the nineteenth century . Present-day textbooks tell of electrostatic fields. The trouble with that is that a field is just a mathematical concept. It is not a mechanism or a causation agent, nor is it a real thing. To put it another way, exploration of the space surrounding a magnet yields information about the strength of the magnetic force between the magnet and the measuring instrument in different locations. It does not imply a function for space.

Iron is not the only element that exhibits magnetic force, but it is outstanding. The key characteristic is the arrangement of electrons in the iron atom. It has six electrons in its 3d shell.

Because of the structure of an electron, it can have polarity. The core of an electron is an aggregate of a tremendous number of neg bits. Around the core is a cloud of pairs of neg-pos bits. The pos of each pair faces the core. When the electron is in an atom, it tends to stretch, with the core facing the nucleus of the atom, and the pos of each bit pair facing away from the nucleus. ........

The six electrons in the 3d shell of the iron atom are unpaired. Paired electrons have the core of one electron facing the atomic nucleus, and the core of the other electron facing away from the nucleus. The unpaired electrons have random orientation. When a permanent magnet is close to a bar of pure iron, the unpaired electrons in the pure iron change their orientation to point the same way as those in the permanent magnet.

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The following link investigates the building blocks of matter, with fundamental particles much smaller than electrons, and photons being built of the same fundamental particles of matter. Building Blocks

For evidence that matter is conserved and photons are matter, visit E=mc2

For original thinking, visit James A Putnam at Century 2003

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